Julia H. Jungmann1 and Ron M. A. Heeren1
- FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and high mass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated. State-of-the-art detection systems for multi-dimensional ion, electron and photon detection are highlighted. Their application and performance in three different imaging modes – integrated, selected and spectral image detection – are described. Electro-optical and microchannel-plate-based systems are contrasted. The analytical capabilities of solid-state pixel detectors – both charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips – are introduced. The Medipix/Timepix detector family is described as an example of a CMOS hybrid active pixel sensor. Alternative imaging methods for particle detection and their potential for future applications are investigated.
CovalX Technology Used (Click each option to learn more)
Using conversion dynode technology, the CovalX HM high mass detection system allows for a method that enables detection of macromolecules up to 1.2 MDa while avoiding high-mass roll-off. Thus, it allows for an increased sensitivity which is extremely beneficial when applied to a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer for the profiling of proteins. Researchers determined that the use of a CovalX HM detection system for the analysis of PEGylated (glyco)proteins that were between 60 and 600 kDa rather than a standard SEM system allowed for a better detection of molecules above the 100 kDa range.